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4.7 Persons who Pose a Risk to Children

RELATED GUIDANCE

Multi-agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA) (GOV.UK) Statutory Guidance

AMENDMENT

In June 2017, an updated link was added to Multi-agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA) (GOV.UK) Statutory Guidance in the Related Guidance section.


Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Collaborative Working
  3. Definition of a PPR
  4. Indicators of PPR's
  5. Response to Information about a PPR
  6. Offences Targeted at those who Abuse Children and Young People by Sexual Exploitation
  7. Interface between Child Protection and Public Protection
  8. Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)
  9. Emergency Reception Centres
  10. References

    Appendix 1: Legislation and other Processes

    Appendix 2: Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences against Children

    Appendix 3: Visits by Children to High Security Hospitals and Prisons

    Appendix 4 List of Offences


1. Introduction

This section provides practice guidance and information about the range of mechanisms that are available when managing people who have been identified as presenting a risk or potential risk of harm to children and young people. Areas covered in this guidance are:

  • Collaborative working between organisations and agencies to identify and manage people who present a risk of harm to children;
  • The Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) which enable agencies to work together when dealing with people who require a greater degree of resources to manage the risk of harm they present to the public; and
  • Other processes and mechanisms for working with people who present a risk to children and young people.

This section should be read in conjunction with:

  • Section 5: Referring concerns to Children’s Social Care or the police;
  • Section 9: Organised or Multiple Abuse and other Complex Investigations;
  • Section 8: Allegations against staff, volunteers or carers.


2. Collaborative Working

The Children Act 1989 recognised that the identification and investigation of child abuse together with the protection and support of victims and their families, requires multi-agency collaboration. As part of that protection action is taken, usually by the Police and Children’s Social Care to prosecute known offenders or to control their access to vulnerable children / young people. An extension of this work is that of identifying and assessing the on-going risk of harm an individual perpetrator may present to other children / young people in the future.

Agencies have a duty to cooperate to provide services to children under Section 10 of the Children Act 2004. Under Section 11 of the same Act, agencies also have a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people.


3. Definition of a PPR

The term ‘Schedule One Offender’ (used to denote someone who has committed serious offences against a child or young person - Children and Young People’s Act 1933) has now been discontinued. It has been replaced with ‘Person Posing a Risk to Children’ (Local Authority Social Services Letter (LASSL 2005).

The term ‘Risk to Children’ applies once an individual has been identified as presenting a risk or potential risk of harm to children / young people. This term incorporates those individuals who have been convicted for an offence under Schedule One and is assessed as posing a future risk of harm to children / young people.

Some individuals who have been convicted of an offence under Schedule One may be assessed as no longer posing a future risk of harm to children and some individuals convicted of violent or sexual offences not detailed or within Schedule One, may be assessed as posing a future risk of harm to children / young people. Additionally there will be cases where a person without a conviction or caution may pose a risk to children / young people. For example, a finding of fact in a Civil Court that an individual poses a risk to children, an individual subject to a Sexual Risk Order (Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014) or other non-offence related information, indicates that an offender presents a risk to children.

Once an individual has been sentenced and/or identified as presenting a risk to children / young people, agencies have a responsibility to work collaboratively to monitor and manage the risk of harm to others. Where the offender is given a community sentence, Probation Service Offender Managers (or Youth Offending Team workers) will monitor the individual’s risk to others and behaviour and liaise with partner agencies as appropriate.

In cases where the offender has been sentenced to a period of custody, prison establishments will undertake a similar responsibility, and in addition, notify other agencies prior to any period of release.


4. Indicators of PPR's

The following are some of the people who may pose a risk to children and young people. This list is not exhaustive:

  • Those found guilty of an offence - Person Posing a Risk to Children;
  • Individuals known to have been cautioned / warned / reprimanded in relation to an offence against children / young people;
  • Individuals against whom there is a previous finding in civil proceedings, e.g. Sexual Harm Prevention Order or Care Proceedings;
  • Those about whom there has been a previous Section 47 Enquiry which came to the conclusion that there had been abuse;
  • An individual who has admitted past abuse of a child;
  • Others whose past or present behaviour gives rise to a reason to suspect that a child may be at risk of significant harm, e.g. a history of domestic abuse and other serious assaults;
  • Offenders against adults who are notified to the Local Authority, because the Prison or Probation Service are concerned about the possible risk to children / young people;
  • Offenders who come to the attention of the MAPPA.


5. Response to Information about a PPR

Notification or discovery of someone who poses a risk to children / young people in the community must be treated as a Child in Need of Protection referral to Children’s Social Care.

A Section 47 Enquiry must be initiated if the offender / person who poses a threat, is living in a household with children / young people, has contact with children / young people or poses a risk to children / young people in the area.

Checks (including the Prison Service that may hold important information) must be undertaken to establish:

  • Any children / young people believed to have been abused by the individual in the past;
  • Other children / young people who are believed to have been in contact with the individual in the past and may therefore have been at risk;
  • Children / young people with whom the individual is currently in contact in a family or work/voluntary setting;
  • Children / young people (who may be in groups) with whom the individual may seek contact, such as children / young people attending a school located near the home of an offender known to target such children / young people.

All assessments of risk must consider the:

  • Needs of the children / young people affected;
  • Level and pattern of abusing or offending behaviour, including behaviour thought to have occurred but which has not led to a criminal conviction;
  • Ability of the young person and their parents / carers to protect them.

A Child Protection Conference must be convened if the threshold criteria are met) and if any child/ren requires continuing protection, therapeutic intervention or family support services.


6. Offences Targeted at those who Abuse Children and Young People by Sexual Exploitation

Those who abuse or exploit children / young people through sexual exploitation are liable to prosecution. The Sexual Offences Act 2003 introduced a number of new offences to deal with those who abuse and exploit children / young people in this way. They protect children / young people up to the age of 18 and can attract tough penalties. These offences include:

  • Sexually exploiting a child by paying them for sex;
  • Causing or inciting sexual exploitation of a child through prostitution;
  • Arranging or facilitating sexual exploitation of a child through prostitution;
  • Controlling a child through prostitution.

These are not the only charges that may be brought against those who sexually exploit or abuse children / young people. Abusers and coercers often physically, sexually and emotionally abuse these children / young people and may effectively imprison them. If a child is victim of serious offences, the most serious charge that the evidence will support should always be used.


7. Interface between Child Protection and Public Protection

Child Protection arrangements exist to manage risks to all identified children / young people. Public Protection arrangements exist to manage the risks from high/very high-risk individuals whether or not they pose a risk to an identified child. It is essential that Child Protection procedures and Public Protection arrangements remain independent of each other whilst at the same time they operate in a complimentary manner to allow for timely assessment of risk and decision-making.


8. Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)

Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements provide a framework in England and Wales for the assessment and management of risk posed by serious and violent offenders. This includes offenders who are considered to a risk, or potential risk of harm to children / young people. Police, Probation and Prison Services (the ‘Responsible Authorities’) have statutory responsibilities (under Sections 67 & 68 Criminal Justice Act 2000), to establish in consultation with partner agencies, ‘Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements’ (MAPPA).

The Criminal Justice Act 2003 strengthened these arrangements by imposing a duty to co-operate (with the Responsible Authorities) on a number of partner agencies providing services to offenders including health, housing, Social Care, education, youth offending teams, job centres and electronic monitoring providers. Current National Guidelines on implementing MAPPA were introduced in April 2004 and updated in 2009.

While MAPPA will not address the concerns of further serious harm posed by all perpetrators of child abuse, its purpose is to focus on convicted sexual and violent offenders returning to and in the community. The development of national databases (in particular ViSOR) has significantly enhanced the capability to track offenders who move between communities and across organisational boundaries.   

Exchange of information is essential for effective public protection. The MAPPA guidance clarifies how MAPPA agencies may exchange information amongst themselves, and to other persons or organisations outside the MAPPA. MAPPA panels can recommend that agencies disclose information about offenders to a number of organisations including schools and voluntary groups.

Identification of MAPPA Offenders

Offenders falling within the remit of MAPPA in each area are categorised as follows:

  • Category 1: registered sex offenders - as defined by the Sex Offenders Act 1997 and amended by the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 and the Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Category 2: violent and other sex offenders- violent and sexual offenders who receive a custodial sentence of 12 months or more, those detained under hospital or guardianship orders and those who have committed specific offences against children / young people;
  • Category 3: other offenders - offenders not in Category 1 or 2 but who are considered by the responsible authority to pose a serious risk to the public.

MAPPA applies to certain categories of individuals who are currently being dealt with for a sexual or violent offence. In the main these offenders are registered sex offenders, i.e. those convicted or cautioned for sexual offences who are required to register with the police, or violent and other sex offenders who generally have received a sentence.

Assessment of the Risk of Serious Harm

The National Probation Service and the Youth Justice Service assess risk of harm in the following way:

  • Low Risk - No significant current indicators of risk of harm;
  • Medium Risk - There are identifiable indicators of risk of harm. The offender has the potential to cause harm but is unlikely to do so unless there is a change of circumstances;
  • High Risk - There are identifiable factors of risk of serious harm. The potential event could happen at any time and the impact could be serious;
  • Very High Risk - There is imminent risk of serious harm. The potential event is more likely than not to happen imminently and the impact could be serious.

Managing Risk

Through MAPPA the Responsible Authority seeks to ensure that strategies to address risk are identified and plans developed, implemented and reviewed on a regular basis. Those plans include action to monitor the behaviour and attitudes of the offender and to intervene in their life in order to control and minimise the risk of serious harm to others. High and Very High Risk Offenders without a stable address, who have been subject to MAPPA, will be offered one suitable housing offer through the Council’s Allocation Policy. However before an offer of accommodation is made, approval of suitability to the property type and location must be received from the Public Protection Unit in Rotherham.

Referrals to MAPPA

Agencies wishing to refer an individual to be considered under MAPPA must obtain agreement from a Senior Manager and follow their agency guidelines with regard to attendance and gathering information. The South Yorkshire MAPPA unit can be contacted on 0114 252 3377.

Participation and Attendance of MAPPA

Statutory requirements to participate in MAPPA are imposed upon police, probation and the prison service and a duty to co-operate is required of other agencies: health, housing, Social Care, education, Youth Offending Service, Jobcentre Plus and electronic monitoring providers. Two lay advisors are also appointed to monitor and review local arrangements.

Collation of Information for MAPPA

Information in open cases will be collated by the social worker for presentation to the meeting as agreed with the MAPPA chair.

Information on closed cases will be gathered by the appropriate team and will be the responsibility of the Team Manager. The collated information will be sent to the MAPPA Chair who will present it at the MAPPA meeting.

Information Sharing on Individuals Subject to MAPPA

Each MAPPA representative will ensure names and addresses of individuals subject to MAPPA consideration are recorded on their agency database (in Children’s Social Care this is called SWIFT). Every MAPPA meeting should take into account that information held is proportionate and meets data protection requirements.

Duty of Care to Staff

Managers will inform staff that they must check both names and addresses and MAPPA red flag status before they carry out home visits or office appointments. Internal agency procedures should be adhered to at all times by staff undertaking home visits and office appointments.


9. Emergency Reception Centres (ERC)

There are times when it is necessary for members of the public to be together in a Rotherham Metropolitan Borough Council (RMBS) Emergency Reception Centre when it is not known who individuals present are, or what level of risk they may pose to children or young people. Examples of such times are when people have to leave their homes due to flooding, or if there is a major accident.

In such circumstances, staff in the ERCs have a duty to identify clients who may pose a risk, particularly if the evacuation is long term, that is two or three days, or more.

Workers in the ERCs record everyone’s name, address and date of birth when they arrive at the centre. At the earliest opportunity this should be reviewed by the manager or assistant managers at Rotherham Operational Safeguarding Unit (01709 823 906), to identify any person on the list who poses a risk. However it should be noted that the Unit does not keep a definitive list. When the Unit is closed, Children’s Social Care Out of Hours team should be contacted. PPR's recorded on SWIFT may have an alert but no details, so the OOH's Team will not be able to give specific information about the risk that they pose. Until it is possible to obtain further information, staff should treat people with caution.

It is also possible that people who pose a risk to children and young people may not provide their true identities to staff at the ERCs. Workers should remain vigilant at all times about the safety and wellbeing of children and young people who are residing at the centres, for the duration of their stay particularly those who are not accompanied by an adult or are on their own.

Staff at ERCs should contact Rotherham Police (0114 220 2020) if they have any suspicions about an individual they think may pose.


10. References


Appendix 1: Legislation and other Processes

Register of Sex Offenders

The Sex Offenders Act 1997 requires those (of any age) who are cautioned or convicted of specified sexual offences against a child (or certain very serious sexual offences against adults) to inform the Police of changes of name and address for a given period of time.

All agencies must inform the Police if they are aware of a sex offender who has changed their address, or is planning to move, without informing the Police.

The above also applies to offenders under the age of 18 if they have been reprimanded, given a final warning or convicted.

Notification Orders

Notification Orders are intended to ensure that British citizens or residents, as well as foreign nationals, can be made subject to the notification requirements (the Sex offenders Register) in the UK if they receive convictions or cautions for sexual offences overseas. Anyone identifying an offender who has received convictions or cautions for sexual offences overseas should refer to SY Police for consideration of an application to the Magistrates Court. Once a Notification Order is in force the offender is subject to the requirements of Sex Offender Registration.

Disqualification from Working with Children / Young People

The Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000, as amended by the Criminal Justice Act 2003, provides for people to be disqualified from working with children / young people via:

  • A Disqualification Order, made by the Crown Court when a person is convicted for an offence against a child (Schedule 4) including sexual offences, violence offences and offences of selling Class A drugs to a child;
  • Being included in a permanent capacity on the lists of people who are unsuitable to work with children / young people kept by the Department of Children, Schools and Families / Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS). From October 2009 the Vetting and Barring Scheme, run by the DBS, increases the safeguards in place to protect children and Adults at Risk, from abuse by staff, volunteers or carers;
  • Disqualification Orders are made as part of the sentence and, therefore cannot be made on application. The Criminal Justice Act 2003, however, allows the Crown Prosecution Service to refer back where it appears that the court should have considered the making of a Disqualification Order but failed to do so.

If it is considered that an offender should have been made the subject of a Disqualification Order the case should be discussed under the MAPPA arrangements and with the Crown prosecution Service to agree a course of action. 

Sexual Harm Prevention Orders (SHPOs) and Sexual Risk Orders

Sexual Harm Prevention Orders and Sexual Risk Orders were introduced by the Anti-Social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act 2014. They replace the previous Sexual Offences Prevention Orders, Risk of Sexual Harm Orders and Foreign Travel Orders which were introduced by the Sexual Offences Act 2003.

Sexual Harm Prevention Orders can be applied to anyone convicted or cautioned of a sexual or violent offence, including where offences are committed overseas.

The court needs to be satisfied that the order is necessary for protecting the public, or any particular members of the public, from sexual harm, or protecting children from sexual harm from the defendant outside the United Kingdom.

The Orders prohibit the defendant from doing anything described in the order, and can include a prohibition on foreign travel (replacing Foreign Travel Orders which were introduced by the Sexual Offences Act 2003).

A prohibition contained in a Sexual Harm Prevention Order has effect for a fixed period, specified in the order, of at least 5 years, or until further order. The Order may specify different periods for different prohibitions.

Failure to comply with a requirement imposed under an Order is an offence punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment.


Appendix 2: Release of Prisoners Convicted of Offences against Children

When a prisoner convicted of offences against a child is being considered for parole or is due to be released from custody (including temporary release) the Prison Probation Officer must seek an assessment in writing from Children's Social Care and community based Probation staff with regard to the effects which release could have upon any children / young people having contact with the address at which the prisoner is expected to reside.

Children's Social Care and community based Probation staff must respond in a timely manner in order for all available information to be considered as part of the process for deciding upon parole or other arrangements for release on licence of the prisoner. The assessment should include:

Probation Staff

  • A home visit: depending on the risk involved, Probation staff may conduct a home visit jointly with the Police;
  • An interview of those living at the address to assess home circumstances.

Children’s Social Care

  • An assessment of potential risk of harm in relation to any child who has been identified as having contact with the address;
  • An assessment of potential risk of harm in relation to any child who may have contact with the prisoner if released;
  • A report identifying all potential risks to children / young people and any protective action that will be needed if the prisoner is to be released to the address.

If following assessment by community Probation staff and Children’s Social Care a decision is made to release a prisoner to an address where a child is likely to have contact with the prisoner a referral for a Child in Need of Protection must be made followed by a Strategy Discussion/Meeting and Section 47 Enquiry prior to the prisoner’s release.

Assessment by Children’s Social Care

On receiving the request for an assessment the Team Manager must:

  • Contact a person with parental responsibility for the child to gain consent for the assessment; and
  • Allocate the assessment to a suitably qualified and experienced social worker.

Children’s Social Care assessment should confirm:

  • The child’s legal relationship with the named patient (only children in specified categories of relationship may visit);
  • The quality of the child’s relationship with the named patient and the nature of attachment, both currently and prior to hospital admission;
  • Whether there has been past, suspected, alleged or confirmed, maltreatment of the child by the patient;
  • Potential future risks of significant harm to the child if the visits take place;
  • The child’s wishes and feelings about the proposed visit, taking into account her/his understanding;
  • The views of those with parental responsibility and, if different, those with day to care of the child;
  • If it is known that the child lived in other Local Authority areas, what other information is known about the child and the family;
  • The frequency of contact that would be appropriate;
  • Who would accompany the child on visits, the type and nature, e.g. quality and duration of relationship with the child alongside as assessment of the accompanying adult’s understanding of potential risks and impact of contact on the child?

The assessment must include the options of professionals who have knowledge of the child and must reflect the hospital or prison’s assessment.

The assessment must be completed within one month of the referral and discussed with the Team Manager who will make a decision on whether any action is needed to safeguard the child/ren.

If the person with parental responsibility refuses to co-operate with the assessment and no information is known about the child; the nominated officer must be informed that a report cannot be provided.

Where the child is known to Children’s Social Care information from records may be supplied with the agreement of the person with parental responsibility.

If the Social Worker concludes that the visit would not, or may not, be in the child’s best interests then the hospital or prison must not allow the visit.

If the Social Worker advises that the visit would be in the child’s best interests, then the hospital or prison nominated officer should make the decision, following discussion with the Social Worker and after taking account of all the available information.


Appendix 3: Visits by Children to High Security Hospitals and Prisons

High secure hospitals and prisons have a duty to implement child protection policies, and liaise with their local LSCB. They should also provide safe venues for children / young people’s visits and provide nominated officers to over see the assessment of whether visits by specific children / young people would be in their best interests.

If requested, Children’s Social Care must assist staff in high secure hospitals and prisons to carry put their responsibilities in relation to the assessment (LAC (99) 23 amended by LAC (2000)18).

With respect to visits by children / young people to patients who have mental health difficulties and are in local non-special hospitals (including those detained under the Mental Health Act 1983), the onus for risk assessments lies with the Local Mental Health Trust.

Patients and prisoners who pose a ‘risk to children / young people’ will only be eligible for a visit if within the permitted categories of relationship (legitimate and natural children, step children, adopted children and children of the prisoner’s partner- provided the prisoner and partner were residing together prior to imprisonment).

The nominated officer of the relevant hospital or prison must contact a person with parental responsibility for the child to:

  • Seek her/his consent for the visit;
  • Confirm the relationship of the child to the patient or prisoner;
  • Clarify who will accompany the child on the visit (must be a parent, relative, foster carer or employee of Children’s Social Care).

A clinical assessment in the case of a patient and an assessment by the Prison Probation Officer in the case of a prisoner must be undertaken. If the assessment findings are supportive of the visit and the person with parental responsibility is in agreement, the assessment must be forwarded to Children’s Social Care with a request to undertake an assessment about whether the visit is in the child’s best interests.


Appendix 4: List of Offences

Taken from Home Office Circular 16/2005

  • Murder;
  • Manslaughter;
  • Infanticide;
  • Kidnapping;
  • False Imprisonment;
  • Assault or battery;
  • Indecent exposure - Section 4 Vagrancy Act 1824;
  • Indecent exposure - Section 28 Town Police Clauses Act 1847;
  • Conspiring or soliciting to commit murder - Section 4 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Administering poison, or wounding, with intent to murder - Section 11 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Threats to kill - Section 16 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm: Wounding with Intent - Section 18 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Wounding and causing grievous bodily harm: Inflicting bodily injury - Section 20 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Maliciously administering poison - Section 23 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Abandonment of children under two - Section 27 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Assault occasioning actual bodily harm - Section 47 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Child stealing - Section 56 Offences Against the Person Act 1861;
  • Drunk in charge of a child under 7 years - Section 2 Licensing Act 1902;
  • Cruelty to children - Section 1 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Allowing persons under 16 to be in brothels - Section 3 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Causing or allowing persons under 16 to be used for begging - Section 4 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Give / cause to be given intoxicating liquor to a child under 5 years - Section 5 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Exposing children under seven to risk of burning - Section 11 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Prohibition against persons under 16 taking part in performances endangering life and limb - Section 23 Children and Young Persons Act 1933;
  • Infanticide - Section 1 Infanticide Act 1938;
  • Rape - Section 1 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Procurement of a woman by threats - Section 2 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Procurement of a woman by false pretences - Section 3 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Administering drugs to obtain or facilitate intercourse - Section 4 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Intercourse with a girl under 13 - Section 5 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Intercourse with a girl under 16 - Section 6 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Intercourse with defective - Section 7 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Procurement of defective - Section 9 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Incest by a man - Section 10 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Incest by a woman - Section 11 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Buggery where the victim is under 16* - Section 12 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Indecency between men (gross indecency) - Section 13 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Indecent assault on a woman - Section 14 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Indecent assault on a man - Section 15 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Assault with intent to commit buggery - Section 16 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Abduction of a woman by force or for the sake of her property - Section 17 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Abduction of unmarried girl under 18 from parent or guardian - Section 19 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Abduction of unmarried girl under 16 from parent or guardian - Section 20 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Abduction of defective from parent or guardian Section 21 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Causing prostitution of women - Section 22 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Procuration of girl under 21 - Section 23 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Detention of a woman in a brothel or other premises - Section 24 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Permitting a girl under 13 to use premises for intercourse - Section 25 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Permitting a girl between 13 and 16 to use premises for intercourse - Section 26 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Permitting defective to use premises for intercourse - Section 27 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Causing or encouraging prostitution of, or intercourse with, or indecent assault on, girl under 16 - Section 28 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Causing or encouraging prostitution of defective - Section 29 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Man living on earnings of prostitution - Section 30 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Women exercising control over prostitute - Section 31 Sexual Offences Act 1956;
  • Sexual intercourse with patients - Section 128 Mental Health Act 1959;
  • Indecent conduct towards young child - Section 1 Indecency with Children Act 1960;
  • Aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the suicide of a child or young person;
  • Section 2 Suicide Act 1961;
  • Procuring others to commit homosexual acts (by procuring a child to commit an act of buggery with any person, or procuring any person to commit an act of buggery with a child) - Section 4 Sexual Offences Act 1967;
  • Living on earnings of male prostitution - Section 5 Sexual Offences Act 1967;
  • Burglary (by entering a building or part of a building with intent to rape a child) - Section 9 Theft Act 1968;
  • Supplying or offering to supply a Class A drug to a child, being concerned in the supplying of such a drug to a child, or being concerned in the making to a child of an offer to supply such a drug - Section 4 Misuse of Drugs Act 1971;
  • Inciting girl under 16 to have incestuous sexual intercourse - Section 54 Criminal Law Act 1977;
  • Indecent photographs of children - Section 1 Protection of Children Act 1978;
  • Offence of abduction of a child by parent - Section 1 Child Abduction Act 1984;
  • Offence of abduction of child by other persons - Section 2 Child Abduction Act 1984;
  • Possession of indecent photographs of children - Section 160 Criminal Justice Act 1988;
  • Abduction of Child in Care/ Police Protection... take away/induce away/assist to run away/ keep away - Section 49 Children Act 1989;
  • Recovery of missing or unlawfully held children - Section 50 Children Act 1989;
  • Abuse of Trust - Section 3 Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000;
  • Traffic in prostitution - Section 145 Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002;
  • Rape - Section 1 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Assault by penetration - Section 2 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Sexual assault - Section 3 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent - Section 4 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Rape of a child under 13 - Section 5 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Assault of a child under 13 by penetration - Section 6 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Sexual assault of a child under 13 - Section 7 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing or inciting a child under 13 to engage in sexual activity - Section 8 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Sexual Activity with a Child - Section 9 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity - Section 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a child - Section 11 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing a child to watch a sexual act - Section 12 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Child sex offences committed by a children or young persons - Section 13 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Arranging or facilitating commission of a child sex offence - Section 14 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Meeting a child following sexual grooming etc. - Section 15 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity with a child - Section 16 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Abuse of position of trust: causing or inciting a child to engage in sexual activity - Section 17 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Abuse of position of trust: sexual activity in the presence of a child - Section 18 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Abuse of position of trust: causing a child to watch a sexual act - Section 19 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Sexual activity with a child family member - Section 25 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Inciting a child family member to engage in sexual activity - Section 26 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder impeding choice - Section 30 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing or inciting a person, with a mental disorder impeding choice, to engage in sexual activity - Section 31 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Engaging in sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder impeding choice - Section 32 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing a person, with a mental disorder impeding choice, to watch a sexual act - Section 33 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Inducement, threat or deception to procure sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder - Section 34 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing a person with a mental disorder to engage in or agree to engage in sexual activity by inducement, threat or deception - Section 35 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Engaging in sexual activity in the presence, procured by inducement, threat or deception, of a person with a mental disorder - Section 36 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act by inducement, threat or deception - Section 37 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Care workers: sexual activity with a person with a mental disorder - Section 38 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Care workers: causing or inciting sexual activity - Section 39 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Care workers: sexual activity in the presence of a person with a mental disorder - Section 40 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Care workers: causing a person with a mental disorder to watch a sexual act - Section 41 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Paying for the sexual services of a child - Section 47 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing or inciting child prostitution or pornography - Section 48 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Controlling a child prostitute or a child involved in pornography - Section 49 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Arranging or facilitating child prostitution or pornography - Section 50 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Causing or inciting prostitution for gain - Section 52 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Controlling prostitution for gain - Section 53 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Trafficking into the UK for sexual exploitation - Section 57 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Trafficking within the UK for sexual exploitation - Section 58 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Trafficking out of the UK for sexual exploitation - Section 59 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Administering a substance with intent - Section 61 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Committing an offence with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against Section 62 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Trespass with intent to commit a sexual offence (in a case where the intended offence was an offence against a child) - Section 63 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Exposure - Section 66 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Voyeurism - Section 67 Sexual Offences Act 2003;
  • Trafficking people for exploitation - Section 4 Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) 2004;
  • Causing or allowing the death of a child or Adult at Risk - Section 5, Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004.

A reference to an offence in this list includes:

  • A reference to an attempt, conspiracy or incitement to commit that offence, and a reference to aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of that offence;
  • Unless stated otherwise, the victim of the offences listed above will be under 18;
  • Cautions for the offences listed above will apply.

End